How Do Dominoes Fall?
Dominoes is a game of matching pairs of squares, marked with pips. Unlike dice or playing cards, dominoes have a single line down their middle and can be used in many different games. They can also be “extended” by adding extra pips to each end, increasing the number of possible combinations.
The origin of domino is unclear, but it probably first appeared in France around 1750. Its name derives from a long hooded cape worn by priests at carnival season or as a masquerade. It was believed that the domino’s ebony black color and ivory face evoked the cape’s dark appearance, which contrasted with the white surplice of the priest.
One of the most amazing things about dominoes is how easy they are to make fall, even if they’re so intricately designed. That’s because they rely on a few simple physical laws.
Firstly, when a domino falls, it converts most of its potential energy to kinetic energy (see Converting Energy). Some of that energy is transmitted to the next domino and helps it knock it over.
Second, the domino’s surface slows down as it reaches the ground and makes contact with other dominoes. This creates friction, which slows the domino’s rate of motion and eventually causes it to stop.
Third, a domino’s bottom edge can slip against the floor and cause it to tip over. This can be especially dangerous if the dominoes are made of plastic, which can be slippery on polished floors.
Finally, a domino’s weight acts as an additional force to help it fall. This is why it can take a domino several minutes to fall.
Once a domino has tipped over, it starts to tumble down a series of other dominoes in a circle. These topplings, called domino rallies, are a great example of physics in action.
The first domino in a rally begins to tumble over a series of other dominoes until it hits the ground and crashes into the next. The momentum from each falling domino accelerates the next domino in the chain, and so on.
That’s why it’s important to have a good set of dominoes that fall easily and evenly, according to the laws of gravity. The most common sets are called “double six” because they have six spots on each end, but there are also larger sets with fewer pips.
A few more important elements of a good domino setup include the amount of space between the falling dominoes and their top edges. This can be as small as a few inches or as large as a few yards.
Another key factor is the size of the dominoes. Ideally, they’re sized to be about a quarter of an inch thick so they can fall smoothly.
In addition, a good set of dominoes should be made with the highest quality materials possible. Ideally, they’re made from metals like brass and bronze to withstand the force of the tumbling process. Lastly, the dominoes should have an eye-catching design that will draw people to them.